Addressing fluid intake and volume control requires alignment and coordination of patients, providers, dialysis facilities, and payers, potentially necessitating a "Volume First" approach. This article reports the consensus opinions achieved at the March 2013 symposium of the Chief Medical Officers of 14 of the largest dialysis providers in the United States. These opinions are based on broad experience among participants, but often reinforced by only observational and frequently retrospective studies, highlighting the lack of high-quality clinical trials in nephrology. Given the high morbidity and mortality rates among dialysis patients and the absence of sufficient trial data to guide most aspects of hemodialysis therapy, participants believed that immediate attempts to improve care based on quality improvement initiatives, physiologic principles, and clinical experiences are warranted until such time as rigorous clinical trial data become available. The following overarching consensus opinions emerged. (1) Extracellular fluid status should be a component of sufficient dialysis, such that approaching normalization of extracellular fluid volume should be a primary goal of dialysis care. (2) Fluid removal should be gradual and dialysis treatment duration should not routinely be less than 4 hours without justification based on individual patient factors. (3) Intradialytic sodium loading should be avoided by incorporating dialysate sodium concentrations set routinely in the range of 134-138 mEq/L, avoidance of routine use of sodium modeling, and avoidance of hypertonic saline solution. (4) Dietary counseling should emphasize sodium avoidance.
Keywords: Hemodialysis; cardiovascular disease; hypertension; sodium; volume.
Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.