To identify the correlation between incidence of anti-phospholipid antibodies and fetal prognosis in pregnant SLE patients, we measured the amount of anti-cardiolipin antibody in their sera, using solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods. Findings in the group having poor obstetric results (fetal loss group) and in those with a history of full-term births (live birth group) were compared with regard to other anti-phospholipid antibodies. The incidence of IgG class anti-cardiolipin antibody was 60% in the fetal loss group and 19% in the live birth group, (P less than 0.05). The incidence of the other anti-phospholipid antibodies, including lupus anticoagulant and biological false-positive serological test for syphilis (BFP-STS), did not differ significantly between the two groups. Therefore, the presence of IgG class anti-cardiolipin antibody may prove to be a useful marker for evaluating fetal risk in SLE patients.