The nuclear factor κB (NF-κΒ) subunits RelA, RelB, cRel, p50, and p52 are each critical for B cell development and function. To systematically characterize their responses to canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathway activity, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis in lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs). We found a complex NF-κB-binding landscape, which did not readily reflect the two NF-κB pathway paradigms. Instead, 10 subunit-binding patterns were observed at promoters and 11 at enhancers. Nearly one-third of NF-κB-binding sites lacked κB motifs and were instead enriched for alternative motifs. The oncogenic forkhead box protein FOXM1 co-occupied nearly half of NF-κB-binding sites and was identified in protein complexes with NF-κB on DNA. FOXM1 knockdown decreased NF-κB target gene expression and ultimately induced apoptosis, highlighting FOXM1 as a synthetic lethal target in B cell malignancy. These studies provide a resource for understanding mechanisms that underlie NF-κB nuclear activity and highlight opportunities for selective NF-κB blockade.
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.