Necroptosis, in vivo detection in experimental disease models

Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2014 Nov;35:2-13. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.08.010. Epub 2014 Aug 23.


Over the last decade, our picture of cell death signals involved in experimental disease models totally shifted. Indeed, in addition to apoptosis, multiple forms of regulated necrosis have been associated with an increasing number of pathologies such as ischemia-reperfusion injury in brain, heart and kidney, inflammatory diseases, sepsis, retinal disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and infectious disorders. Especially necroptosis is currently attracting the attention of the scientific community. However, the in vivo identification of ongoing necroptosis in experimental disease conditions remains troublesome, mainly due to the lack of specific biomarkers. Initially, Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 kinase activity were uniquely associated with induction of necroptosis, however recent evidence suggests pleiotropic functions in cell death, inflammation and survival, obscuring a clear picture. In this review, we will present the last methodological advances for in vivo necroptosis identification and discuss past and recent data to provide an update of the so-called "necroptosis-associated pathologies".

Keywords: Experimental disease models; MLKL; Methods; Necroptosis; RIPK1/3.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caspase 8 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological*
  • Necrosis / metabolism*
  • Pathology, Clinical / methods*
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction*


  • MLKL protein, human
  • Protein Kinases
  • RIPK1 protein, human
  • RIPK3 protein, human
  • Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Caspase 8