Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder encountered in clinical practice. Patients who develop this condition for more than 48 hours are at risk for severe neurological sequelae if correction of the serum sodium occurs too rapidly. Certain medical disorders are known to place patients at an increased risk for rapid correction of serum sodium concentration. Large-volume polyuria in this setting is an ominous sign. For these patients, early identification of risk factors, close monitoring of serum sodium correction and the use of 5% dextrose with or without desmopressin to prevent or reverse overcorrection are important components of treatment.