Background: To assess the safety and efficacy of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) in oligometastatic patients from colorectal cancer.
Methods: 82 patients with 1-3 inoperable metastases confined to one organ (liver or lung), were treated with SABR for a total of 112 lesions in an observational study. Prescription dose ranged between 48 and 75 Gy in 3 or 4 consecutive fractions. Primary end-points were local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end-point was toxicity.
Results: Median follow-up was 24 months (range 3-47). One, two and three years LC rate was 90%,80% and 75% (85%,75% and 70% for lung and 95%, 90% and 85% for liver metastases; no statistically significance was found). The difference in LC between the subgroup of lesions treated with ≥ 60 Gy (n = 58) and those irradiated with <60 Gy (n = 52) was statistically significant, with a 1, 2 and 3 yrs LC of 97%,92% and 83% for the higher dose, compared to 85%,70% and 70% for the lower dose (p < 0.04). Median OS was 32 months. Actuarial OS rate at 1, 2 and 3 yrs was 85%,65% and 43%. Univariate analysis showed a correlation only between OS and cumulative GTV > 3 cm (p < 0.02). Median PFS was 14 months, with a PFS rate of 56% at 1 yr and 40% at 2-3 yrs, without correlation with the site and prescription dose (p < 0.48 and p < 0.56). No patients experienced radiation-induced liver disease or grade >3 toxicity.
Conclusions: SABR is a safe and feasible alternative treatment of oligometastatic colorectal liver and lung metastases in patients not amenable to surgery or other ablative treatments.