The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2014;23(3):360-8. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.3.16.


The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.

肠道微生物的作用在理解肥胖发生和发展的过程越来越重要。膳食策略被用作 减肥的一个主要工具,现今,其专注点不仅仅是限制卡路里,而是涉及到膳食 的各个方面。此外,饮食是影响肠道微生物组成的一个重要因素。因此,除限 制能量摄入之外,治疗肥胖的饮食策略还要考虑到宏观营养和微观营养对肠道 微生物组成的影响。本综述的目的旨在收集整理不同的饮食组成对人类肥胖和 炎症相关的肠道微生物影响的现有数据。虽然还需要更多的工作,已有证据显 示特定的饮食因素(碳水化合物,蛋白质和地中海食物)对肠道微生物的组成 确有影响,意味着有可能通过改变肠道微生物来预防和治疗肥胖。

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diet / methods*
  • Diet, Mediterranean
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / diet therapy*
  • Mice
  • Microbiota / drug effects
  • Microbiota / physiology*
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / diet therapy*


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins