Field application of modified in situ soil flushing in combination with air sparging at a military site polluted by diesel and gasoline in Korea

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Aug 27;11(9):8806-24. doi: 10.3390/ijerph110908806.


In this study the full-scale operation of soil flushing with air sparging to improve the removal efficiency of petroleum at depths of less than 7 m at a military site in Korea was evaluated. The target area was polluted by multiple gasoline and diesel fuel sources. The soil was composed of heterogeneous layers of granules, sand, silt and clay. The operation factors were systemically assessed using a column test and a pilot study before running the full-scale process at the site. The discharged TPH and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) concentrations in the water were highest at 20 min and at a rate of 350 L/min, which was selected as the volume of air for the full-scale operation in the pilot air sparging test. The surfactant-aid condition was 1.4 times more efficient than the non-surfactant condition in the serial operations of modified soil flushing followed by air sparging. The hydraulic conductivity (3.13 × 10-3 cm/s) increased 4.7 times after the serial operation of both processes relative to the existing condition (6.61 × 10-4 cm/s). The removal efficiencies of TPH were 52.8%, 57.4%, and 61.8% for the soil layers at 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and 8 to 9 m, respectively. Therefore, the TPH removal was improved at depth of less than 7 m by using this modified remediation system. The removal efficiencies for the areas with TPH and BTEX concentrations of more than 500 and 80 mg/kg, were 55.5% and 92.9%, respectively, at a pore volume of 2.9. The total TPH and BTEX mass removed during the full-scale operation was 5109 and 752 kg, respectively.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Environmental Pollution / analysis*
  • Environmental Pollution / prevention & control*
  • Environmental Restoration and Remediation / methods*
  • Gasoline / analysis*
  • Military Facilities
  • Pilot Projects
  • Republic of Korea
  • Soil Pollutants / analysis*
  • Surface-Active Agents / chemistry


  • Gasoline
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Surface-Active Agents