Loxapine: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy as an antipsychotic agent

Drugs. 1978 Mar;15(3):198-217. doi: 10.2165/00003495-197815030-00002.


Loxapine is a dibenzoxazepine, tricyclic compound recommended for the treatment of acute and chronic schizophrenia. In its therapeutic effectiveness and profile and incidence of side-effects, loxapine closely resembles the traditional antipsychotic agents. Although loxapine has tended to be less effective than some standard antipsychotic drugs in a few short-term (3 to 4 weeks) studies, it has been superior to a placebo and about as effective as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, trifluoperazine or thiothixene when evaluated after 4 to 12 weeks. Like the phenothiazine (e.g. chlorpromazine) and butyrophenone (e.g. haloperidol) antipsychotic agents, loxapine causes a high incidence of extrapyramidal reactions. Sedation occurs frequently, especially during early stages of treatment. Other, less common side-effects such as anticholinergic effects (dry mouth, blurred vision, etc.), hypotension, tachycardia and precipitation of epileptic seizures, which occur with the older antipsychotic drugs, have also been reported with loxapine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Antipsychotic Agents*
  • Chlorpromazine / therapeutic use
  • Dibenzoxazepines / pharmacology*
  • Drug Interactions
  • Haloperidol / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Kinetics
  • Loxapine / adverse effects
  • Loxapine / metabolism
  • Loxapine / pharmacology*
  • Loxapine / therapeutic use
  • Receptors, Dopamine / drug effects
  • Schizophrenia / drug therapy*
  • Thiothixene / therapeutic use
  • Trifluoperazine / therapeutic use


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Dibenzoxazepines
  • Receptors, Dopamine
  • Trifluoperazine
  • Thiothixene
  • Haloperidol
  • Loxapine
  • Chlorpromazine