Serum enolase: a non-destructive biomarker of white skeletal myopathy during pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L

J Fish Dis. 2015 Sep;38(9):821-31. doi: 10.1111/jfd.12296. Epub 2014 Aug 29.


Diseases which cause skeletal muscle myopathy are some of the most economically damaging diseases in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., aquaculture. Despite this, there are limited means of assessing fish health non-destructively. Previous investigation of the serum proteome of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., during pancreas disease (PD) has identified proteins in serum that have potential as biomarkers of the disease. Amongst these proteins, the enzyme enolase was selected as the most viable for use as a biomarker of muscle myopathy associated with PD. Western blot and immunoassay (ELISA) validated enolase as a biomarker for PD, whilst immunohistochemistry identified white muscle as the source of enolase. Enolase was shown to be a specific marker for white muscle myopathy in salmon, rising in serum concentration significantly correlating with pathological damage to the tissue.

Keywords: Atlantic salmon; biomarkers; enolase; health; myopathy; pancreas disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / metabolism*
  • Fish Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Fish Diseases / enzymology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Muscular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Muscular Diseases / enzymology
  • Muscular Diseases / veterinary*
  • Pancreatic Diseases / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Diseases / enzymology
  • Pancreatic Diseases / veterinary*
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Salmo salar


  • Biomarkers
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase