Effect and mechanisms of action of vinegar on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and body weight

Nutr Rev. 2014 Oct;72(10):651-61. doi: 10.1111/nure.12125. Epub 2014 Aug 28.


The aim of this review is to summarize the effects of vinegar on glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that vinegar can help reduce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Other studies, however, have shown no beneficial effect on metabolism. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain these metabolic effects, including delayed gastric emptying and enteral absorption, suppression of hepatic glucose production, increased glucose utilization, upregulation of flow-mediated vasodilation, facilitation of insulin secretion, reduction in lipogenesis, increase in lipolysis, stimulation of fecal bile acid excretion, increased satiety, and enhanced energy expenditure. Although some evidence supports the use of vinegar as a complementary treatment in patients with glucose and lipid abnormalities, further large-scale long-term trials with impeccable methodology are warranted before definitive health claims can be made.

Keywords: acetic acid; glucose metabolism; lipid metabolism; obesity; vinegar.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Acetic Acid / adverse effects
  • Animals
  • Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diet therapy
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Lipid Metabolism*
  • Obesity / diet therapy


  • Insulin
  • Glucose
  • Acetic Acid