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, 10 (8), 895-908
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The First Mitochondrial Genomes of Antlion (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) and Split-Footed Lacewing (Neuroptera: Nymphidae), With Phylogenetic Implications of Myrmeleontiformia

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The First Mitochondrial Genomes of Antlion (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) and Split-Footed Lacewing (Neuroptera: Nymphidae), With Phylogenetic Implications of Myrmeleontiformia

Yan Yan et al. Int J Biol Sci.

Abstract

In the holometabolous insect order Neuroptera (lacewings), the cosmopolitan Myrmeleontidae (antlions) are the most species-rich family, while the closely related Nymphidae (split-footed lacewings) are a small endemic family from the Australian-Malesian region. Both families belong to the suborder Myrmeleontiformia, within which controversial hypotheses on the interfamilial phylogenetic relationships exist. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of an antlion (Myrmeleon immanis Walker, 1853) and a split-footed lacewing (Nymphes myrmeleonoides Leach, 1814), representing the first mt genomes for both families. These mt genomes are relatively small (respectively composed of 15,799 and 15,713 bp) compared to other lacewing mt genomes, and comprise 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes). The arrangement of these two mt genomes is the same as in most derived Neuroptera mt genomes previously sequenced, specifically with a translocation of trnC. The start codons of all PCGs are started by ATN, with an exception of cox1, which is ACG in the M. immanis mt genome and TCG in N. myrmeleonoides. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN). The secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS are similar with those proposed insects and the domain I contains nine helices rather than eight helices, which is common within Neuroptera. A phylogenetic analysis based on the mt genomic data for all Neuropterida sequenced thus far, supports the monophyly of Myrmeleontiformia and the sister relationship between Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae.

Keywords: Myrmeleontiformia; Neuroptera; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny..

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Mitochondrial map of Myrmeleon immanis and Nymphes myrmeleonoides.The tRNAs are denoted by the color blocks and are labeled according to the IUPACIUB single-letter amino acid codes. Gene name without underline indicates the direction of transcription from left to right, and with underline indicates right to left.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Secondary structures of 22 tRNA genes of Myrmeleon immanis.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Secondary structures of 22 tRNA genes of Nymphes myrmeleonoides.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Secondary structures of rrnS of Myrmeleon immanis and Nymphes myrmeleonoides. Red circles indicate the conserved nucleotides in the rrnS of M. immanis and N. myrmeleonoides. Gray circles indicate the variable nucleotides in the rrnS of M. immanis. Orange circles indicate the variable nucleotides in the rrnS of N. myrmeleonoides. Pink arrows indicate the replacement of different nucleotide in N. myrmeleonoides. Blue arrows indicate insertion of additional nucleotides in N. myrmeleonoides. Each helix is numbered progressively from the 5' to the 3' end together with the first nucleotide belonging to the helix itself. Domains are labeled with Roman numerals. Tertiary structures are denoted by boxed bases joined by solid lines.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Secondary structures of rrnL of Myrmeleon immanis and Nymphes myrmeleonoides. Red circles indicate the conserved nucleotides in the rrnL of M. immanis and N. myrmeleonoides. Gray circles indicate the variable nucleotides in the rrnL of M. immanis. Orange circles indicate the variable nucleotides in the rrnL of N. myrmeleonoides. Pink arrows indicate the replacement of different nucleotide in N. myrmeleonoides. Blue arrows indicate insertion of additional nucleotides in N. myrmeleonoides. Each helix is numbered progressively from the 5' to the 3' end together with the first nucleotide belonging to the helix itself. Domains are labeled with Roman numerals. Tertiary structures are denoted by boxed bases joined by solid lines.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) of the mt genomes of Neuropterida. Stop codon is not given.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) of the mt genomes of Neuropterida. Stop codon is not given.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Three-dimensional scatter-plot of the AT-, GC-Skew and A+T% of the mt genomes of Neuropterida. L.m.: Libelloides macaronius; A.a.: Ascaloptynx appendiculatus; C.n.: Chrysoperla nipponensis; C.p.: Chrysopa pallens; A.m.: Apochrysa matsumurae; D.b.: Ditaxis biseriata; P.p.: Polystoechotes punctatus; T.l.: Thyridosmylus langii; C.c.: Corydalus cornutus; N.p.: Neochauliodes punctatolosus; S.h.: Sialis hamata; M.h.: Mongoloraphidia harmandi; N.m.: Nymphes myrmeleonoides; M.i.: Myrmeleon immanis. Red circles: Ascalaphidae; blue circles: Chrysopidae; yellow circles: Mantispidae; olive circles: Ithonidae; mazarine circles: Osmylidae; purple circles: Megaloptera; green circles: Raphidiidae; orange circles: Myrmeleontidae; pink circles: Nymphidae.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Phylogenetic relationships among Neuroptera families based on mt genomic data. Cladogram of relationships resulting from BI and ML analyses with Mongoloraphidia harmandi (Raphidioptera), Neochauliodes punctatolosus (Megaloptera), Sialis hamata (Megaloptera) and Corydalus cornutus (Megaloptera) as outgroups. Numbers at the nodes are Bayesian posterior probabilities (left) (10,000,000 generations) and ML bootstrap values (right) (100 replicates).

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