Amino acid, mineral, and polyphenolic profiles of black vinegar, and its lipid lowering and antioxidant effects in vivo

Food Chem. 2015 Feb 1;168:63-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.035. Epub 2014 Jul 11.


Black vinegar (BV) contains abundant essential and hydrophobic amino acids, and polyphenolic contents, especially catechin and chlorogenic acid via chemical analyses. K and Mg are the major minerals in BV, and Ca, Fe, Mn, and Se are also measured. After a 9-week experiment, high-fat/cholesterol-diet (HFCD) fed hamsters had higher (p<0.05) weight gains, relative visceral-fat sizes, serum/liver lipids, and serum cardiac indices than low-fat/cholesterol diet (LFCD) fed ones, but BV supplementation decreased (p<0.05) them which may resulted from the higher (p<0.05) faecal TAG and TC contents. Serum ALT value, and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hepatic TNF-α and IL-1β contents in HFCD-fed hamsters were reduced (p<0.05) by supplementing BV due to increased (p<0.05) hepatic glutathione (GSH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) levels, and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Taken together, the component profiles of BV contributed the lipid lowering and antioxidant effects on HFCD fed hamsters.

Keywords: Amino acid profile; Antioxidant capacity; Black vinegar; Lipid-lowering effect; Mineral profile; Polyphenolic profile.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / analysis*
  • Acetic Acid / metabolism*
  • Amino Acids / analysis*
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Cholesterol / metabolism
  • Cricetinae
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects
  • Dietary Supplements / analysis
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hyperlipidemias / diet therapy*
  • Hyperlipidemias / enzymology
  • Hyperlipidemias / metabolism
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / analysis*
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / metabolism
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mesocricetus
  • Minerals / analysis*
  • Polyphenols / analysis*
  • Polyphenols / metabolism
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism


  • Amino Acids
  • Antioxidants
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Minerals
  • Polyphenols
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • Cholesterol
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Glutathione
  • Acetic Acid