Impact of different pan-frying conditions on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and sensory quality in fried bacon

Food Chem. 2015 Feb 1:168:383-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.074. Epub 2014 Jul 22.


Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are formed in the crust of cooked meat products. Most HAAs are carcinogenic in long-term animal studies. Besides precursors in raw materials, important factors are temperature and heating time. Bacon slices were investigated for concentrations of HAAs after pan-frying under different monitored heating conditions. Two HAAs, MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (1.5-5.6ng/g) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) (0.1-2.6ng/g), were found in pan-fried bacon slices. The bacon clearly contained higher concentrations of HAAs both with longer frying times and at temperatures of 200-220°C rather than 150-170°C, respectively. A similar continuous increase of the concentrations was observed for norharman (5.0-19.9ng/g) and harman (0.3-1.7ng/g). The sensory evaluation, using a hedonic test design for colour and flavour, of the pan-fried bacon slices resulted in a preferred frying time of 5min at 150-170°C. However, some testers clearly preferred crispy and darker bacon slices containing higher HAA concentrations.

Keywords: 4,8-DiMeIQx (PubChem CID: 95896-78-9); 7,8-DiMeIQx (PubChem CID: 104855); Bacon; Creatin(in)e; Harman (PubChem CID: 486-84-0); Heterocyclic aromatic amines; IQ (PubChem CID: 53462); IQx (PubChem CID: 108354-47-8); MeIQ (PubChem CID: 62274); MeIQx; MeIQx (PubChem CID: 62275); Norharman (PubChem CID: 244-63-3); Pan-frying; PhIP; PhIP (PubChem CID: 105650-23-5); Processed meat; Sensory quality; β-Carbolines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cooking / methods*
  • Food Handling
  • Imidazoles / analysis*
  • Meat Products / analysis*
  • Quinoxalines / analysis*
  • Temperature


  • Imidazoles
  • Quinoxalines
  • 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline
  • 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine