Synapsin I is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein which is a substrate for cAMP- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. It is specifically localized to the cytoplasmic side of small synaptic vesicles. The interaction of synapsin I with the synaptic vesicle membrane is complex in nature, since it is modulated by phosphorylation and involves binding of different domains of the molecule to phospholipid and protein components of synaptic vesicles. Synapsin I is also able to interact with actin filaments in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Because of these properties, it has been hypothesized that synapsin I acts as a dynamic link between synaptic vesicles an the actin meshwork of the nerve terminal, thereby modulating the release of neurotransmitter.