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. 2014 Sep 1;4(9):e133.
doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.32.

Plasma Amino Acid Profiles Are Associated With Insulin, C-peptide and Adiponectin Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Free PMC article

Plasma Amino Acid Profiles Are Associated With Insulin, C-peptide and Adiponectin Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

H Nakamura et al. Nutr Diabetes. .
Free PMC article


Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and glucose-related variables.

Methods: Fifty-one Japanese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. The plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids; glucose-related markers including glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol; insulin-related markers including insulin, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; and adipocytokines including adiponectin and leptin were determined. The association of PFAA and other metabolic profiles were analyzed, and stratified analyses of the PFAAs and clinical characteristics were performed according to the fasting plasma insulin and HbA1c levels. In addition, the PFAA indices that correlate to visceral fat obesity were evaluated.

Results: Although strong correlations between PFAAs and glucose-related markers were not observed, several amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan, alanine, tyrosine, glutamate and proline) and PFAA indices that evaluate visceral obesity were highly correlated with insulin-related markers and adiponectin (P<0.001). In the group of diabetic patients with hyperinsulinemia, the amino acid levels were significantly increased, which generally demonstrated good concordance with insulin-related markers and adiponectin levels.

Conclusions: The PFAA profiles in diabetic patients were strongly associated with hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, which might become risk evaluation factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Cluster analysis of plasma amino acid and other clinical variables in type 2 diabetic patients. The dendrograms obtained from the hierarchical cluster analysis of the plasma amino acids and some clinical variables relating to glucose, insulin resistance and lipid homeostasis in 51 type 2 diabetes patients are shown. Ward's method was used for the analysis. The red block represents a relatively high level and the green block represents a relatively low level. The dotted line represents the cluster branches of the dendrogram. HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; TG, triglyceride.

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