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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2015 Aug;54(5):803-10.
doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0759-z. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

A Mid-Morning Snack of Almonds Generates Satiety and Appropriate Adjustment of Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Women

Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

A Mid-Morning Snack of Almonds Generates Satiety and Appropriate Adjustment of Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Women

Sarah Hull et al. Eur J Nutr. .
Free PMC article


Purpose: To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses.

Method: On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days.

Results: Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack.

Conclusion: Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day.


Fig. 1
Fig. 1
VAS scores of hunger (a, b) and fullness (c, d) rated from pre mid-morning snack to pre-ad libitum meal 1 (minutes 0–90: a and c) and from post-ad libitum meal 1 to pre-ad libitum meal 2 (minutes 120–390: b and d). Ratings were made on days when 28 g (triangles) and 42 g (squares) of almonds were consumed as a mid-morning snack, and on a 0 g almond control day (circles). From minutes 0–90, the mid-morning almond snack significantly influenced hunger and fullness ratings (both p < 0.0001)

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