Treating severe hypoglycemia: rapid mixing of lyophilized glucagon and diluent at point of care with the Enject GlucaPen

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015 Jan;9(1):34-7. doi: 10.1177/1932296814549597. Epub 2014 Sep 2.


Severe hypoglycemia (SH) is a common problem in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Annually, nearly 1 of 5 persons with long-standing T1D will have SH. Though injections of glucagon are effective in treating SH, liquid formulations of glucagon are biochemically very unstable. For this reason, available preparations of glucagon are lyophilized; the powder and the diluent must be mixed at the point of care prior to administration and any remaining drug must be discarded. The process of mixing and delivery is complex. Coupled with the emotional stress of the caregiver, errors in glucagon delivery are very common. For these reasons, workers at Enject, Inc are in the process of developing a device that addresses the shortcomings of this currently approved method of glucagon delivery. The Enject device will store the glucagon powder and the diluent in separate compartments and will rapidly mix and inject the components only upon activation of the pen at the point of care.

Keywords: glucagon; hypoglycemia; insulin; type 1 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Disposable Equipment
  • Drug Delivery Systems / instrumentation*
  • Equipment Design
  • Excipients / chemistry
  • Freeze Drying
  • Glucagon / administration & dosage*
  • Glucagon / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / drug therapy*
  • Injections / instrumentation
  • Point-of-Care Systems
  • Severity of Illness Index


  • Excipients
  • Glucagon