Cross-sectional comparison of the prevalence of age-associated comorbidities and their risk factors between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: the AGEhIV cohort study

Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 15;59(12):1787-97. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu701. Epub 2014 Sep 2.


Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may be at increased risk of age-associated noncommunicable comorbidities (AANCCs).

Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of AANCC prevalence (including cardiovascular, metabolic, pulmonary, renal, bone, and malignant disease) and risk factors in a prospective cohort study of HIV type 1-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls, who were aged ≥45 years and comparable regarding most lifestyle and demographic factors.

Results: HIV-infected participants (n = 540) had a significantly higher mean number of AANCCs than controls (n = 524) (1.3 [SD, 1.14] vs 1.0 [SD, 0.95]; P < .001), with significantly more HIV-infected participants having ≥1 AANCC (69.4% vs 61.8%; P = .009). Hypertension, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and impaired renal function were significantly more prevalent among HIV-infected participants. Risk of AANCC by ordinal logistic regression was independently associated with age, smoking, positive family history for cardiovascular/metabolic disease, and higher waist-to-hip ratio, but also with HIV infection (odds ratio, 1.58 [95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.03]; P < .001). In those with HIV, longer exposure to CD4 counts <200 cells/µL, and, to a lesser extent, higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and soluble CD14, and longer prior use of high-dose ritonavir (≥400 mg/24 hours) were each also associated with a higher risk of AANCCs.

Conclusions: All AANCCs were numerically more prevalent, with peripheral arterial, cardiovascular disease, and impaired renal function significantly so, among HIV-infected participants compared with HIV-uninfected controls. Besides recognized cardiovascular risk factors, HIV infection and longer time spent with severe immunodeficiency increased the risk of a higher composite AANCC burden. There was a less pronounced contribution from residual inflammation, immune activation, and prior high-dose ritonavir use.

Keywords: HIV infection; aging; comorbidity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors