Anesthesiologist staffing considerations consequent to the temporal distribution of hypoxemic episodes in the postanesthesia care unit

Anesth Analg. 2014 Dec;119(6):1322-33. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000410.


Background: Hypoxemia, as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2), is common in postanesthesia care unit (PACU) patients. The temporal distribution of desaturation has managerial implications because treatment may necessitate the presence of an anesthesiologist.

Methods: We retrieved SpO2 values recorded electronically every 30 to 60 seconds from 137,757 PACU patients over n = 80 four-week periods at an academic medical center. Batch mean methods of analysis were used. Onset times of hypoxemic episodes (defined, on the basis of previous studies, as SpO2 <90% lasting at least 2 minutes) were determined and resolution at 3, 5, and 10 minutes was assessed. Episodes beginning <30 minutes and ≥30 minutes after PACU admission were compared. Patients undergoing intubation in the PACU were identified by doing a free text search of electronically recorded nursing notes for phrases suggesting intubation, followed by a confirmatory manual chart review. Intervals from PACU admission to intubation were determined.

Results: Fewer than half (31.2% ± 0.05%) of episodes of PACU hypoxemia lasting ≥2 minutes occurred <30 minutes after PACU admission. Most (i.e., >50%) occurred ≥30 minutes after admission (P < 0.0001). Few (<1%) anesthesia providers transporting patients to the PACU were still present in the PACU 30 minutes after arrival in the PACU. Fewer than half (37%; 95% confidence interval, 27.4% to 48.8%) of PACU intubations occurred <30 minutes after PACU admission. Most (i.e., >50%) occurred ≥30 minutes after admission (P = 0.029). Hypoxemic episodes in the PACU resolved more slowly than episodes in operating rooms (P < 0.0001). After 3 minutes, 40.9% ± 0.6% were unresolved in the PACU versus 23% (99% upper confidence limit) in operating rooms, and 32.6% ± 0.5% vs 9% (99% upper confidence limit) after 5 minutes.

Conclusions: Because most (68.8%) hypoxemic episodes in the PACU occur ≥30 minutes after admission, a time by which the anesthesia provider who transported the patient usually would no longer be present (>99% of cases), the PACU needs to be considered when anesthesiologist operating room staffing and assignment decisions are made.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Academic Medical Centers
  • Anesthesia Department, Hospital*
  • Anesthesia Recovery Period*
  • Anesthesiology*
  • Health Services Needs and Demand*
  • Humans
  • Hypoxia / diagnosis*
  • Hypoxia / therapy
  • Intubation, Intratracheal
  • Needs Assessment*
  • Oximetry
  • Personnel Staffing and Scheduling*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Time Factors
  • Workforce
  • Workload*