Predicting major outcomes in type 1 diabetes: a model development and validation study

Diabetologia. 2014 Nov;57(11):2304-14. doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3358-x. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: Type 1 diabetes is associated with a higher risk of major vascular complications and death. A reliable method that predicted these outcomes early in the disease process would help in risk classification. We therefore developed such a prognostic model and quantified its performance in independent cohorts.

Methods: Data were analysed from 1,973 participants with type 1 diabetes followed for 7 years in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study. Strong prognostic factors for major outcomes were combined in a Weibull regression model. The performance of the model was tested in three different prospective cohorts: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study (EDC, n = 554), the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy study (FinnDiane, n = 2,999) and the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study (CACTI, n = 580). Major outcomes included major CHD, stroke, end-stage renal failure, amputations, blindness and all-cause death.

Results: A total of 95 EURODIAB patients with type 1 diabetes developed major outcomes during follow-up. Prognostic factors were age, HbA1c, WHR, albumin/creatinine ratio and HDL-cholesterol level. The discriminative ability of the model was adequate, with a concordance statistic (C-statistic) of 0.74. Discrimination was similar or even better in the independent cohorts, the C-statistics being: EDC, 0.79; FinnDiane, 0.82; and CACTI, 0.73.

Conclusions/interpretation: Our prognostic model, which uses easily accessible clinical features can discriminate between type 1 diabetes patients who have a good or a poor prognosis. Such a prognostic model may be helpful in clinical practice and for risk stratification in clinical trials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies

Substances

  • Glycated Hemoglobin A