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, 21 (6), 465-474

Clinical and Functional Outcomes in Young Adult Males With ADHD

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Clinical and Functional Outcomes in Young Adult Males With ADHD

Jared Wei Lik Ng et al. J Atten Disord.

Abstract

Objective: To investigate clinical and functional outcomes in military men with ADHD.

Method: Clinical outcomes were measured via the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung SDS) and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (Zung SAS). Functional outcomes were measured using the "Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble" (CRAFFT) questionnaire and questionnaires about relationships, conduct problems, substance use, and sleep.

Results: Men with ADHD ( n = 52) reported more depressive (34 [67.3%] vs. 19 [38%], p = .008) and anxiety symptoms (31 [61.5%] vs. 14 [28%], p = .009) compared with those without ( n = 50). They had relationships lasting less than 1 year (24 [80%] vs. 9 [37.5%], p = .006), were more likely to smoke (17 [32.7%] vs. 5 [10%], p = .005), were most likely to use illicit substances (6 [11.5%] vs. 0 [0%], p < .001), had more conduct problems at school (27 [51.9%] vs. 5 [10%], p < .001), and had longer sleep latency (53.96 min ± 46.48 vs. 25.78 min ± 25.93, p = .006).

Conclusion: Military men with ADHD are significantly associated with worse clinical and functional outcomes. They should be screened and monitored for depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and substance use.

Keywords: ADHD; anxiety; depression; sleep problems; substance use.

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