Background: There is substantial evidence that adult stem cell populations exist in human endometrium, and hence it is suggested that either endogenous endometrial stem/progenitor cells can be activated or bone marrow derived stem cells can be transplanted in the uterine cavity for endometrial regeneration in Asherman's syndrome (AS).
Aims and objectives: The objective was to evaluate the role of sub-endometrial autologous stem cell implantation in women with refractory AS in attaining menstruation and fertility.
Setting: Tertiary care referral center.
Design: Prospective case series.
Materials and methods: Six cases of refractory AS with failed standard treatment option of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in the past were included. Mononuclear stem cells (MNCs) were implanted in sub-endometrial zone followed by exogenous oral estrogen therapy. Endometrial thickness (ET) was assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months.
Results: Descriptive statistics and statistical analysis of study variables was carried out using STATA version 9.0. The mean MNC count was 103.3 × 106 (±20.45) with mean CD34+ count being 203,642 (±269,274). Mean of ET (mm) at 3 months (4.05 ± 1.40), 6 months (5.46 ± 1.36) and 9 months (5.48 ± 1.14) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased from pretreatment level (1.38 ± 0.39). Five out of six patients resumed menstruation.
Conclusion: The autologous stem cell implantation leads to endometrial regeneration reflected by restoration of menstruation in five out of six cases. Autologous stem cell implantation is a promising novel cell based therapy for refractory AS.
Keywords: Asherman's syndrome; autologous stem cells; bone marrow; endometrial regeneration.