Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study

Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 28;112(8):1412-22. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400213X. Epub 2014 Sep 5.


Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed no differences in 24 h and postprandial EE or appetite regulation. However, lipid oxidation, estimated from the respiratory quotient (RQ), was found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC during daytime (P= 0·014) as well as during the time after the breakfast meal (P= 0·008) when the food was provided. Likewise, NEFA concentrations were found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC and IC (P< 0·01). However, there was no overall difference in the concentration of insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1. In conclusion, dietary treatments when served as high-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on EE and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Appetite Regulation*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Breakfast
  • Caseins / metabolism
  • Caseins / therapeutic use*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet, Reducing
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood
  • Female
  • Food, Formulated
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Male
  • Milk Proteins / metabolism
  • Milk Proteins / therapeutic use*
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Overweight / blood
  • Overweight / diet therapy*
  • Overweight / metabolism
  • Protein Hydrolysates / metabolism
  • Protein Hydrolysates / therapeutic use*
  • Whey Proteins
  • Young Adult


  • Amino Acids
  • Caseins
  • Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
  • Milk Proteins
  • Protein Hydrolysates
  • Whey Proteins
  • casein hydrolysate