Self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome in Japanese people: cross-sectional study

BMJ Open. 2014 Sep 5;4(9):e005241. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005241.


Objectives: To examine the association between self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Annual health checkup at a health check service centre in Japan.

Participants: A total of 56,865 participants (41,820 male and 15,045 female) who attended a health checkup in 2011 and reported no history of coronary heart disease or stroke.

Main outcome measure: Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Results: In multiple logistic regression models, eating rate was significantly and positively associated with metabolic syndrome. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for slow, normal and fast were 0.70 (0.62 to 0.79), 1.00 (reference) and 1.61 (1.53 to 1.70), respectively, in men (p for trend <0.001), and 0.74 (0.60 to 0.91), 1.00 (reference) and 1.27 (1.13 to 1.43), respectively, in women (p for trend <0.001). Of metabolic syndrome components, abdominal obesity showed the strongest association with eating rate. The associations of eating rate and metabolic syndrome and its components were largely attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index; however, the association of slow eating with lower odds of high blood pressure (men and women) and hyperglycaemia (men) and that of fast eating with higher odds of lipid abnormality (men) remained statistically significant.

Conclusions: Results suggest that eating rate is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome and that this association is largely accounted for by the difference in body mass according to eating rate.


Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Self Report*
  • Time Factors