Background: Retrospective studies and case-reports have suggested the possible role of various viruses in the pathogenesis of the Kawasaki disease.
Objectives: To determine prospectively the incidence of Kawasaki diseases associated with a recent bocavirus infection in the course of a year.
Study design: Thirty-two children with Kawasaki disease were enrolled in a 13 months prospective study to assess the frequency of human bocavirus type 1 infections. Seasonal shedding of virus, markers of recent infection such as viraemia, viral load, and serum interferon alpha were analyzed.
Results: Three of 32 (9%) children had HBoV-DNA in the serum suggesting a recent infection. HBoV-DNA was detected in naso-pharyngeal aspiration of 7/32 (21.8%) children with Kawasaki Disease and six of them (18%) had an increased viral load. No common respiratory viruses were isolated from the 32 patients with the exception of one adenovirus. The seven bocaviruses were identified during the winter-spring season. In addition, 4 of 7 of Kawasaki disease patients shedding bocavirus had detectable interferon alpha in the blood, indicating a possible active or recent viral infection.
Conclusions: This study shows that a recent bocavirus infection is concomitant with the onset of some cases of Kawasaki disease. Bocavirus may be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of this disease as previously reported for other infectious agents.
Keywords: Bocavirus; Interferon; Interféron; Kawasaki disease; Maladie de Kawasaki; Vascularite; Vasculitis; Viraemia; Virémie.
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