Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic brain disorders worldwide, affecting 1% of people across different ages and backgrounds. Epilepsy is defined as the sporadic occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that there is a positive feedback cycle between epileptogenesis and brain inflammation. Epileptic seizures increase key inflammatory mediators, which in turn cause secondary damage to the brain and increase the likelihood of recurrent seizures. Cytokines and prostaglandins are well-known inflammatory mediators in the brain, and their biosynthesis is enhanced following seizures. Such inflammatory mediators could be therapeutic targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. In this review, we discuss the roles of inflammatory mediators in epileptogenesis.