Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) is challenging and has been associated with low success rates. However, recent advancements in equipment and the flexibility to switch between multiple technical approaches during the same procedure ("hybrid" percutaneous algorithm) have dramatically increased the success of CTO-PCI. We sought to compare the contemporary procedural outcomes of hybrid CTO-PCI with previously published CTO-PCI studies.
Methods: The procedural outcomes of 497 consecutive CTO-PCIs performed between January 2012 and August 2013 at five high-volume centers in the United States were compared with the pooled success and complication rates reported in 39 prior CTO-PCI series that included ≥100 patients and were published after 2000.
Results: The baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics of the study patients were comparable to those of previous studies. Technical and procedural success was achieved in 455 cases (91.5%) and 451 cases (90.7%), respectively, and were significantly higher than the pooled technical and procedural success rates from prior studies (76.5%, P<.001 and 75.2%, P<.001, respectively). Major procedural complications occurred in 9/497 patients (1.8%) overall and included death (2 patients), acute myocardial infarction (5 patients), repeat target vessel PCI (1 patient), and tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis (2 patients). The incidence of major complications was similar to that of prior studies (pooled rate 2.0%; P=.72).
Conclusion: Use of the hybrid approach to CTO-PCI is associated with higher success and similar complication rates compared to prior studies, supporting its expanded use for treating these challenging lesions.