Randomized controlled trial on the impact of music therapy during cardiac catheterization on reactive hyperemia index and patient satisfaction: the Functional Change in Endothelium After Cardiac Catheterization, With and Without Music Therapy (FEAT) study

J Invasive Cardiol. 2014 Sep;26(9):437-42.


Objectives: To determine the impact of music intervention on endothelial function, hemodynamics, and patient anxiety before, during, and after cardiac catheterization.

Background: The effect of music therapy during cardiac catheterization on endothelial function and patient satisfaction has received limited study.

Methods: Seventy patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization were randomized to music therapy (n=36) or no music therapy (n=34). Peripheral arterial tonometry was performed before and after catheterization. A 6 item (24-point scale) questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety and discomfort levels was also administered after the procedure.

Results: Both study groups had similar baseline characteristics, fluoroscopy time, and contrast administration. Reactive hyperemia index (RHI) change was 0.14 ± 0.72 in the music group and 0.30 ± 0.58 in the control group (P=.35). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) changes did not significantly differ between the two groups (systolic BP change -3.3 ± 17.3 mm Hg vs -2.3 ± 19.4 mm Hg; P=.83 and diastolic BP change -1.9 ± 12.2 mm Hg vs. 2.0 ± 13.4 mm Hg; P=.23). Heart rate changes were also comparable between the two groups (-1 ± 6 beats/ min vs -1 ± 7 beats/min; P=.22). Patient satisfaction questionnaire measurements were found to be similar in patients with and without music therapy (8 [7-11] vs 9 [8-12]; P=.36).

Conclusions: In this study, music intervention did not elicit a vasodilator response, did not lower blood pressure or heart rate, and did not relieve anxiety or stress discomfort in patients who underwent coronary angiography.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anxiety / physiopathology
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Cardiac Catheterization / psychology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy*
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperemia / epidemiology*
  • Hyperemia / physiopathology
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Music Therapy*
  • Patient Satisfaction*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome