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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2015 Aug 1;48:16-21.
doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2014.08.014. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Effect of Acute Dietary Nitrate Intake on Maximal Knee Extensor Speed and Power in Healthy Men and Women

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Free PMC article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Effect of Acute Dietary Nitrate Intake on Maximal Knee Extensor Speed and Power in Healthy Men and Women

Andrew R Coggan et al. Nitric Oxide. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women.

Keywords: Dietary nitrate; Humans; Isokinetic; Muscle power; Nitric oxide.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Calculation of maximal knee extensor velocity (Vmax) and power (Pmax) for a representative subject. Open circles and dashed line, placebo trial. Closed circles and solid line, NO3- trial.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effect of acute dietary NO3- intake on breath NO levels. Open bars, placebo trial. Closed bars, NO3- trial. Values are mean ± S.E. for n=12. NO3- trial significantly higher than placebo trial at same time point: ‡P<0.001.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of acute dietary NO3- intake on estimated maximal knee extensor velocity (Vmax; top panel) and power velocity (Pmax; bottom panel). The open bars and closed bars indicate the mean (± S.E.) values for the placebo and NO3- trials, respectively, whereas the squares and circles illustrate the responses of individual male and female subjects, respectively. NO3- trial significantly higher than placebo trial: *P<0.05.

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