Human dermal CD14⁺ cells are a transient population of monocyte-derived macrophages

Immunity. 2014 Sep 18;41(3):465-477. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Sep 4.


Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are leukocytes with critical roles in immunity and tolerance. The DC network is evolutionarily conserved; the homologs of human tissue CD141(hi)XCR1⁺ CLEC9A⁺ DCs and CD1c⁺ DCs are murine CD103⁺ DCs and CD64⁻ CD11b⁺ DCs. In addition, human tissues also contain CD14⁺ cells, currently designated as DCs, with an as-yet unknown murine counterpart. Here we have demonstrated that human dermal CD14⁺ cells are a tissue-resident population of monocyte-derived macrophages with a short half-life of <6 days. The decline and reconstitution kinetics of human blood CD14⁺ monocytes and dermal CD14⁺ cells in vivo supported their precursor-progeny relationship. The murine homologs of human dermal CD14⁺ cells are CD11b⁺ CD64⁺ monocyte-derived macrophages. Human and mouse monocytes and macrophages were defined by highly conserved gene transcripts, which were distinct from DCs. The demonstration of monocyte-derived macrophages in the steady state in human tissue supports a conserved organization of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD11b Antigen / biosynthesis
  • Cell Differentiation / immunology
  • Cell Lineage / immunology
  • Cell Movement / immunology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Memory / immunology
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / metabolism*
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Receptors, IgG / biosynthesis
  • Skin / cytology
  • Skin / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • CD11b Antigen
  • ITGAM protein, human
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Receptors, IgG

Associated data

  • GEO/GSE35459
  • GEO/GSE49358
  • GEO/GSE60317