Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and macrophages are leukocytes with critical roles in immunity and tolerance. The DC network is evolutionarily conserved; the homologs of human tissue CD141(hi)XCR1⁺ CLEC9A⁺ DCs and CD1c⁺ DCs are murine CD103⁺ DCs and CD64⁻ CD11b⁺ DCs. In addition, human tissues also contain CD14⁺ cells, currently designated as DCs, with an as-yet unknown murine counterpart. Here we have demonstrated that human dermal CD14⁺ cells are a tissue-resident population of monocyte-derived macrophages with a short half-life of <6 days. The decline and reconstitution kinetics of human blood CD14⁺ monocytes and dermal CD14⁺ cells in vivo supported their precursor-progeny relationship. The murine homologs of human dermal CD14⁺ cells are CD11b⁺ CD64⁺ monocyte-derived macrophages. Human and mouse monocytes and macrophages were defined by highly conserved gene transcripts, which were distinct from DCs. The demonstration of monocyte-derived macrophages in the steady state in human tissue supports a conserved organization of human and mouse mononuclear phagocyte system.
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.