Purpose: Unilateral ureteral obstruction halts ureteral peristalsis, and may cause pain and lead to infection. Ureteral ability to recover after obstruction removal remains unclear. Erythropoietin has protective effects in nonhematopoietic organs and restores peristalsis in hypocontractile intestinal smooth muscle cells. We investigated the role of erythropoietin in ureteral smooth muscle function and its therapeutic value for unilateral ureteral obstruction.
Materials and methods: Unilateral ureteral obstruction was created for 24, 48 and 72 hours in 22 mice per group using a nontraumatic microclip via laparotomy. We determined erythropoietin, erythropoietin receptor and β-common receptor expression in obstructed and unobstructed ureters by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Ten mice per group received 20 IU erythropoietin for 4 days and controls received saline. Hydronephrosis regression after obstruction removal was assessed by ultrasound. Peristalsis was determined microscopically before and after obstruction removal.
Results: Erythropoietin, erythropoietin receptor and β-common receptor were expressed in the unobstructed and obstructed ureters of untreated mice. Erythropoietin mRNA was up-regulated in response to obstruction and erythropoietin expression was identified in ureteral smooth muscle. After obstruction removal hydronephrosis and ureteral dysfunction correlated with obstruction duration. Hydronephrosis resolution and ureteral peristalsis restoration were significantly accelerated in erythropoietin treated mice compared to controls.
Conclusions: Erythropoietin treatment significantly promoted functional recovery of the ureter after obstruction removal. Erythropoietin may be a helpful strategy for ureteral motility recovery and hydronephrosis resolution in ureteral obstruction.
Keywords: erythropoietin; hydronephrosis; muscle; peristalsis; smooth; ureteral obstruction.
Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.