Bovine spastic paresis: current knowledge and scientific voids

Vet J. 2014 Nov;202(2):229-35. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.07.015. Epub 2014 Jul 21.


The aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of bovine spastic paresis of the gastrocnemius muscle (BSP-G) have been investigated for several decades, but much remains to be elucidated. In some breeds, the proportion of atypical presentations of BSP involving the quadriceps muscle (BSP-Q) and/or several other muscles (mixed presentation, BSP-M) appears to be increasing. Differentiation between BSP-G, -Q and -M is challenging and existing surgical treatments are usually ineffective in cattle affected by one of the atypical forms of the disease. This paper reviews the current knowledge on BSP and addresses several areas where understanding of the disease is incomplete.

Keywords: Bovine spastic paresis; Cattle; Gastrocnemius muscle; Mixed presentation; Quadriceps femoris.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cattle Diseases / etiology*
  • Cattle Diseases / therapy*
  • Muscle Spasticity / diagnosis
  • Muscle Spasticity / etiology
  • Muscle Spasticity / therapy
  • Muscle Spasticity / veterinary*
  • Paresis / diagnosis
  • Paresis / etiology
  • Paresis / therapy
  • Paresis / veterinary*