Background: The failures of recent studies intended to prevent cerebral vasospasm have moved the focus of research into delayed cerebral ischemia away from cerebral artery constriction towards other mechanisms. Recent accumulating evidence has suggested that early brain injury is also involved in the development of delayed cerebral ischemia, and that hydrogen can prevent early brain injury. Therefore, we have established a combination therapy of intravenous hydrogen infusion and intra-cisternal magnesium sulfate infusion for the treatment of both early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm. The present randomized controlled clinical trial is designed to investigate the effects of this novel therapeutic strategy on the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and clinical outcomes after high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Methods: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design to be conducted in two hospitals. A total of 450 patients with high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage will be randomized to one of three arms: (i) Mg + H2 group, (ii) Mg group, and (iii) control group. Patients who are assigned to the Mg + H2 group will receive intra-cisternal magnesium sulfate infusion (2.5 mmol/L) at 20 mL/h for 14 days and intravenous hydrogen-rich fluid infusion (200 mL) twice a day for 14 days. Patients who are assigned to the Mg group will receive intra-cisternal magnesium sulfate infusion (2.5 mmol/L) at 20 mL/h for 14 days and intravenous normal glucose-electrolyte solution (200 mL) without added hydrogen twice a day for 14 days. Patients who are assigned to the control group will receive intra-cisternal Ringer solution without magnesium sulfate at 20 mL/h for 14 days and intravenous normal glucose-electrolyte solution (200 mL) without added hydrogen twice a day for 14 days. Primary outcome measures will be occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia and cerebral vasospasm. Secondary outcome measures will be modified Rankin scale score at 3, 6, and 12 months and biochemical markers.
Discussion: The present protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled study of intravenous hydrogen therapy with intra-cisternal magnesium infusion is expected to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic strategy.
Trial registration umin-ctr: UMIN000014696.