In pediatric neurosurgery departments in India, craniosynostosis is being increasingly identified and dealt with during the past several years. The management of this problem is well established in units that have a strong pediatric bias, whereas it is still in infancy in certain departments. Some misconceptions exist regarding this condition with reference to clinical, genetic aspects and management-in particular, the surgical indications. The experience gained for more than 2 decades of treating this condition as well as the problems faced in the management of this condition will be discussed. Although the terms craniostenosis and craniosynostosis do not mean quite the same thing, the terms are used interchangeably and will be done so in this communication.