Albuminuria is associated with elevated acute phase reactants and proinflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Dec;30(12):1185-91. doi: 10.1089/AID.2014.0072.


Albuminuria among HIV-infected individuals has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Inflammation has been associated with albuminuria. The pathophysiology of albuminuria in HIV-infected individuals is poorly understood. We investigated the association of albuminuria with inflammatory biomarkers among HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This is a cross-sectional analysis of participants enrolled in the Hawaii Aging with HIV-Cardiovascular Cohort. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers were assessed using the Milliplex Human Cardiovascular disease multiplex assays. A random urine sample was collected for albumin measurement. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g. Framingham risk score was calculated and divided into three classes. Simple and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the correlation between plasma inflammatory biomarkers and albuminuria and were adjusted for Framingham risk category. Among 111 HIV-infected patients [median (IQR) age of 52 (46-57) years, 86% male, median (IQR) CD4 count of 489 (341-638) cells/mm(3), 85% with HIV RNA <50 copies/ml], 18 subjects (16.2%) had moderately increased albuminuria (albuminuria range between 30 and 300 mg/g) and 2 subjects (1.8%) had severely increased albuminuria (albuminuria more than 300 mg/g). In multivariable logistic models, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1, CRP, SAA, and SAP remained significantly associated with albuminuria after adjustment of CVD risk factors. This study showed an association between inflammation and albuminuria independent of previously reported risk factors for albuminuria in HIV-infected subjects who were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Chronic inflammation despite potent antiretroviral treatment may contribute to higher rates of albuminuria among HIV-infected patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acute-Phase Proteins / analysis*
  • Albuminuria / blood*
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / blood
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation / epidemiology
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors


  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Biomarkers
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Cytokines