Genetic Determinants of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Diverse Populations From the PAGE Study

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Sep 9;55(10):6839-50. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14246.


Purpose: Substantial progress has been made in identifying susceptibility variants for AMD in European populations; however, few studies have been conducted to understand the role these variants play in AMD risk in diverse populations. The present study aims to examine AMD risk across diverse populations in known and suspected AMD complement factor and lipid-related loci.

Methods: Targeted genotyping was performed across study sites for AMD and lipid trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). Genetic association tests were performed at individual sites and then meta-analyzed using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model stratified by self-described race/ethnicity. Participants included cases with early or late AMD and controls with no signs of AMD as determined by fundus photography. Populations included in this study were European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Singaporeans from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.

Results: Index variants of AMD, rs1061170 (CFH) and rs10490924 (ARMS2), were associated with AMD at P=3.05×10(-8) and P=6.36×10(-6), respectively, in European Americans. In general, none of the major AMD index variants generalized to our non-European populations with the exception of rs10490924 in Mexican Americans at an uncorrected P value<0.05. Four lipid-associated SNPS (LPL rs328, TRIB1 rs6987702, CETP rs1800775, and KCTD10/MVK rs2338104) were associated with AMD in African Americans and Mexican Americans (P<0.05), but these associations did not survive strict corrections for multiple testing.

Conclusions: While most associations did not generalize in the non-European populations, variants within lipid-related genes were found to be associated with AMD. This study highlights the need for larger well-powered studies in non-European populations.

Keywords: ARMS2 A69S; CFH Y402H; PAGE Study; age-related macular degeneration; genetic epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Complement Factor H / genetics
  • Complement Factor H / metabolism
  • DNA / genetics*
  • Ethnic Groups / genetics*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / ethnology
  • Macular Degeneration / genetics*
  • Macular Degeneration / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • ARMS2 protein, human
  • Proteins
  • complement factor H, human
  • Complement Factor H
  • DNA

Grant support