Oxiracetam is a recently synthesized nootropic that was tested as a potential treatment for cognitive decline in patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and primary degenerative dementia (PDD). Subjects were 34 MID patients and 39 PDD patients who met entrance criteria for the study. A repeated measures ANOVA showed significant improvement in both patients with MID and patients with PDD for word fluency. The total score on the Relatives' Assessment of Global Symptomatology-Elderly showed significant improvement for patients with PDD. The average score on the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, however, showed a significant decline for patients with PDD.