To study clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), we searched for BCR-ABL-independent gene mutations in both Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative and Ph-positive clones in 29 chronic-phase CML patients by targeted deep sequencing of 25 genes frequently mutated in myeloid disorders. Ph-negative clones were analyzed in 14 patients who developed clonal cytogenetic abnormalities in Ph-negative cells during treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Mutations were detected in 6/14 patients (43%) affecting the genes DNMT3A, EZH2, RUNX1, TET2, TP53, U2AF1 and ZRSR2. In two patients, the mutations were also found in corresponding Ph-positive diagnostic samples. To further investigate Ph-positive clones, 15 randomly selected CML patients at diagnosis were analyzed. Somatic mutations additional to BCR-ABL were found in 5/15 patients (33%) affecting ASXL1, DNMT3A, RUNX1 and TET2. Analysis of individual hematopoietic colonies at diagnosis revealed that most mutations were part of the Ph-positive clone. In contrast, deep sequencing of subsequent samples during TKI treatment revealed one DNMT3A mutation in Ph-negative cells that was also present in Ph-positive cells at diagnosis, implying that the mutation preceded the BCR-ABL rearrangement. In summary, BCR-ABL-independent gene mutations were frequently found in Ph-negative and Ph-positive clones of CML patients and may be considered as important cofactors in the clonal evolution of CML.