Analysis of roasted and unroasted Pistacia terebinthus volatiles using direct thermal desorption-GCxGC-TOF/MS

Food Chem. 2011 Dec 1;129(3):1258-64. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.003. Epub 2011 May 15.


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of roasting time on volatile components of Pistacia terebinthus L., a fruit growing wild in Turkey. The whole fruit samples were pan roasted for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25min at 200°C. Volatile compounds were isolated and identified using the direct thermal desorption (DTD) method coupled with comprehensive gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS). The major components of the fresh hull of P. terebinthus were α-pinene (10.37%), limonene (8.93%), β-pinene (5.53%), 2-carene (4.47%) and γ-muurolene (4.29%). Eighty-three constituents were characterised from the volatiles of fresh whole P. terebinthus fruits obtained by direct thermal desorption with α-pinene (9.62%), limonene (5.54%), γ-cadinane (5.48%), β-pinene (5.46%), β-caryophyllene (5.24%) being the major constituents. The type and the number of constituents characterised were observed to change with differing roasting times. Limonene (5.56%), α-pinene (4.84%), 5-methylfurfural (4.78%), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 3.89%), dimethylmetoxyfuranone (3.67%) and 3-methyl-2(5H)furanone (3.12%) were identified as the major components among the 104 compounds characterised in the volatiles of P. terebinthus, roasted for 25min. In addition, volatiles of fully roasted P. terebinthus fruits contained furans and furanones (15.42%), pyridines (4.45%) and benzene derivatives (3.81%) as the major groups.

Keywords: Direct thermal desorption; GCxGC–TOF/MS; Pistacia terebinthus; Roasting; Volatiles.