Oral Candida carriage and prevalence of Candida species among Maras powder users and non-users

J Oral Pathol Med. 2015 Aug;44(7):502-6. doi: 10.1111/jop.12260. Epub 2014 Sep 12.


Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida carriage and species in Maras powder users and non-users.

Material and methods: This study included 100 volunteering men in 12 cafés in the city of Kahramanmaras, Turkey. A questionnaire composed of questions about socio-demographic features and Maras powder use was filled in by the participants. Culture specimens were obtained from bilateral buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue with a sterile cotton-tipped swap. The specimens were inoculated in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA).

Results: The mean age of the participants was 48.0 ± 12.5 years (min = 20, max = 70). Fifty-four percent of the Maras powder users and 22% of the non-users were Candida carriers. The difference between the groups was significant (P = 0.001). The most frequently isolated species was Candida albicans at a rate of 44% in the Maras powder users and at a rate of 18% in the non-users. Other frequent species were Candida glabrata at a rate of 6% in the Maras powder users and 2% in the control group and Candida tropicalis at a rate of 4% in the Maras powder users and 2% in the nonusers.

Conclusion: We found that a significantly high rate of the Maras powder users was Candida carriers. It should be kept in mind that opportunistic infections may be caused by Candida species in Maras powder users especially with immunosuppressive conditions since Candida species are likely to lead to such infections in cases of immunosuppressive diseases.

Keywords: Candida; smokeless tobacco; tobacco.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Candida / classification
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Candida albicans / isolation & purification
  • Candida glabrata / isolation & purification
  • Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology*
  • Candidiasis, Oral / microbiology*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Health
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Tobacco, Smokeless / statistics & numerical data*
  • Turkey / epidemiology
  • Young Adult