The severe complications of dengue virus infections, hemorrhagic manifestations and shock, are more commonly observed during secondary dengue virus infections than during primary infections. It has been speculated that these complications are mediated by cross-reactive host-immune responses. We have begun to analyze human T cell responses to dengue antigens in vitro to explain the possible role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of these complications. Dengue antigens induce proliferative responses of PBMC from dengue antibody-positive donors, but do not induce specific proliferative responses of PBMC from dengue antibody-negative donors. IFN gamma is detected in the culture fluids of dengue-immune PBMC stimulated with dengue antigens. The cells that proliferate in the dengue antigen-stimulated bulk cultures have CD3+, CD4+, CD8-, CD16-, and CD20- phenotypes. Dengue-specific T cell lines were established using limiting dilution techniques. They have CD3+, CD4+, and CD8- phenotypes, and produce IFN gamma in response to dengue antigens. Culture fluids from dengue-immune PBMC stimulated with dengue antigens, which contain IFN gamma, augment dengue virus infection of human monocytes by dengue virus-antibody complexes. These results indicate that PBMC from dengue-immune donors contain CD4+ T cells that proliferate and produce IFN gamma after stimulation with dengue antigens, and suggest that the IFN gamma that is produced by these stimulated dengue-specific T cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome by increasing the number of dengue virus-infected monocytes in the presence of cross-reactive anti-dengue antibodies.