Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different implant angulations and attachment configurations on the retentive forces of locator attachment-retained overdentures over a simulated time period of 6 months.
Materials and methods: Two acrylic resin models (models 1 and 2) were fabricated to represent an edentulous mandible. In model 1, the midline implant (in the central region) was vertical and the other two implants (in the canine regions) were 20 degrees divergent from the midline, reaching a total divergence of 40 degrees. In model 2, all three implants were vertically oriented, perpendicular to the occlusal plane and parallel to each other. Three-point vertical pull-out forces were employed in a universal testing machine at a constant crosshead speed of 50 mm/min after overdenture construction and a simulation of 6 months of repeated insertions/removals of the overdenture. Locator attachments with different male combinations and bar and clip attachments were tested in model 1. Clear locator attachments and bar and clip attachments were tested in model 2 and served as controls.
Results: The initial retentive forces of all attachments in both models ranged from 26.58 to 62.05 N, whereas the initial retentive forces of the attachments for only model 1 ranged from 49.58 to 62.05 N. The highest retention value was recorded for clear green locator attachments and the lowest for hader bar yellow clip attachments. Locator attachments showed higher retention values than hader bar yellow clip attachments.
Conclusion: All attachment systems demonstrated a decrease in retention over time. Locator attachments provided better retention than hader bar yellow clip attachments. The highest retention values were obtained when green male locators were used in combination with male attachments.