Top-down processing in the neocortex underlies important cognitive functions such as predictive coding and attentional set. We review evidence indicating that top-down neocortical processes are carried by interareal synchrony, particularly in the beta frequency band. We hypothesize that top-down neocortical signals in the beta band convey behavioral context to low-level sensory neurons. We further speculate that large-scale distributed networks, self-organized at the highest hierarchical levels, are the source of top-down signals in the neocortex.
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