Introduction: The EGFR plays a central role in regulating cancer cell growth and survival, representing an attractive therapeutic target in NSCLC.
Areas covered: For the purpose of this review article, data from Phase II and III trials with anti-EGFR agents, including EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mAbs, were collected and analysed.
Expert opinion: Eight large Phase III trials demonstrated that EGFR-TKIs are the best option we can offer today as front-line therapy exclusively in EGFR mutant NSCLC. In patients with EGFR wild type or unknown lung cancer, platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard of care, with no consistent benefit produced by the addition of an anti-EGFR treatment. In pretreated NSCLC, EGFR-TKIs are considered more effective than standard monotherapy with cytotoxics in presence of classical EGFR mutations, whereas in the EGFR wild-type population, a similar efficacy with docetaxel or pemetrexed in terms of survival has been demonstrated. New agents targeting EGFR are under investigation, particularly in individuals with squamous cell histology and those with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
Keywords: EGFR; EGFR mutation; EGFR tyrosinekinase inhibitors; cetuximab.