Our understanding of gene regulation in plants is constrained by our limited knowledge of plant cis-regulatory DNA and its dynamics. We mapped DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in A. thaliana seedlings and used genomic footprinting to delineate ∼ 700,000 sites of in vivo transcription factor (TF) occupancy at nucleotide resolution. We show that variation associated with 72 diverse quantitative phenotypes localizes within DHSs. TF footprints encode an extensive cis-regulatory lexicon subject to recent evolutionary pressures, and widespread TF binding within exons may have shaped codon usage patterns. The architecture of A. thaliana TF regulatory networks is strikingly similar to that of animals in spite of diverged regulatory repertoires. We analyzed regulatory landscape dynamics during heat shock and photomorphogenesis, disclosing thousands of environmentally sensitive elements and enabling mapping of key TF regulatory circuits underlying these fundamental responses. Our results provide an extensive resource for the study of A. thaliana gene regulation and functional biology.
Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.