Background: Aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and outcomes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) in Greek intensive care units (ICU).
Methods: Secondary analysis of data from 29 ICU collected during the EUROBACT study, a large prospective, observational, multination survey of HA-BSI. First episodes of HA-BSI acquired in the ICU or within 48 hours prior to admission were recorded.
Results: Gram-negative bacteria predominated namely Acinetobacter sp, Klebsiella sp, Pseudomonas sp (73.3% of monomicrobial infections) followed by Gram-positive cocci (18.3%); fungi (7.6%) and anaerobes (0.8%). Overall 73.3% of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), 47.1% extensively resistant (XDR) and 1.2% pan-drug resistant (PDR). Carbapenems were the most frequent empirically prescribed antibiotics, while colistin was the most frequently adequate; for both, calculated mean total daily doses were suboptimal. Overall 28-day all-cause mortality was 33.3%. In the multivariate analysis, factors adversely affecting outcome were higher SOFA score at HA-BSI onset (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.08-1.31, P=0.0006), need for renal supportive therapy (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.35-5.59, P=0.0053), and for vasopressors/inotropes (OR 2.68; CI 1.18-6.12, P=0.02); adequate empirical treatment had a protective effect (OR 0.48; CI 0.24-0.95, P=0.03).
Conclusion: TIMELY administration of adequately dosed treatment regimens and early ICU admission of critically ill patients could help in improving outcomes.