Background: Atherosclerosis, with its major manifestation, coronary artery disease (CAD) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Dietary fatty acids intakes favorably effect on inflammatory responses. This study was conducted to examine the association between dietary fatty acid intakes and inflammatory markers, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), in CAD patients among Iranian population.
Materials and methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Chamran Heart Hospital, Isfahan, Iran in 2012. Patients aged ≥45 years with first ever symptomatic CAD confirmed by angiography were included. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the usual intakes of dietary fatty acids.
Results: The energy-adjusted daily intakes (mean ± SD) of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) were 27 ± 9, 22 ± 6, 21 ± 5, 0.4 ± 0.32, and 0.85 ± 0.82 g/d; respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, SFA was directly related to hs-CRP (P = 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.001) concentrations. Intakes of EPA + DHA and MUFA, were significantly adversely related to plasma hs-CRP concentration (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively) but not IL-6, albeit MUFA was modestly inversely related to IL-6 (P = 0.08). No significant relationships were observed for other fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that saturated fatty acids, EPA + DHA and MUFA were significantly related to plasma inflammatory markers in CAD patients.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease; fatty acids; high sensitivity C-reactive protein; interleukin-6.