Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction leads to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, an increasingly prevalent condition largely driven by modern day lifestyle risk factors. As heart failure with preserved ejection fraction accounts for almost one-half of all patients with heart failure, appropriate nonhuman animal models are required to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome and to provide a platform for preclinical investigation of potential therapies. Hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are major risk factors for diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. This review focuses on murine models reflecting this disease continuum driven by the aforementioned common risk factors. We describe various models of diastolic dysfunction and highlight models of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction reported in the literature. Strengths and weaknesses of the different models are discussed to provide an aid to translational scientists when selecting an appropriate model. We also bring attention to the fact that heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is difficult to diagnose in animal models and that, therefore, there is a paucity of well described animal models of this increasingly important condition.
Keywords: Animal models; diabetes and obesity; diastolic dysfunction; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); hypertension.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.