Poor adherence to neonatal resuscitation guidelines exposed; an observational study using camera surveillance at a tertiary hospital in Nepal

BMC Pediatr. 2014 Sep 16:14:233. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-233.


Background: Each year an estimated 10 million newborns require assistance to initiate breathing, and about 900 000 die due to intrapartum-related complications. Further research is required in several areas concerning neonatal resuscitation, particularly in settings with limited resources where the highest proportion of intrapartum-related deaths occur. The aim of this study is to use CCD-camera recordings to evaluate resuscitation routines at a tertiary hospital in Nepal.

Methods: CCD-cameras recorded the resuscitations taking place and CCD-observational record forms were completed for each case. The resuscitation routines were then assessed and compared with existing guidelines. To evaluate the reliability of the observational form, 50 films were randomly selected and two independent observers completed two sets of forms for each case. The results were then cross-compared.

Results: During the study period 1827 newborns were taken to the resuscitation table, and more than half of them (53.3%) were noted as not crying prior to resuscitation.Suction was used in almost 90% of newborns brought to the resuscitation table, whereas bag-and-mask ventilation was only used in less than 10%. The chance to receive ventilation with bag-and-mask for a newborn not crying when brought to the resuscitation table was higher for boys (AdjOR 1.44), low birth weight babies (AdjOR 1.68) and babies that were delivered by caesarean section (AdjOR 1.64).The reliability of the observational form varied considerably amongst the different variables analyzed, but was high for all variables concerning the use of bag-and-mask ventilation and the variable whether suction was used or not, all matching in over 91% of the forms.

Conclusions: CCD camera technique was a feasible method to assess resuscitation practices in this low resource hospital setting. In most aspects, the staff did not adhere to guidelines regarding neonatal resuscitation. The use of bag-and-mask ventilation was inadequate, and suction was given excessively in terms of protocol. Further studies exploring the underlying causes behind the lack of adherence to the neonatal resuscitation guidelines should be conducted.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Asphyxia Neonatorum / therapy*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Developing Countries
  • Female
  • Guideline Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Nepal
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Process Assessment, Health Care
  • Respiration, Artificial / methods
  • Respiration, Artificial / statistics & numerical data
  • Resuscitation / methods*
  • Resuscitation / standards
  • Resuscitation / statistics & numerical data
  • Suction / statistics & numerical data
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Video Recording*